An Overview of PCBFabricationand Related Electronics

The printed circuit board, or PCB for short, is one of the most important components in the world of electronics today. Without PCB fabrication, typical electronic products such as televisions, air conditioners, and computers would have sizes as big as a typical personal room in a house due to the many complicated wires and enormous circuits needed for them to run smoothly and efficiently.

A PCB is defined as an electronic circuit board that is composed of a thick base layer and a thin layer made of copper foil in which the circuitry is made via etching. It is where electronic components such as transistors are later mounted via a process called soldering before the board is actually used. The base layer is called the substrate; and is made of any of the following materials, regardless if they are rigid or flexible: hard plastic, phenolic, masonite, glass, and fiberglass.

PCB fabricationPCB fabrication began in 1940 when Paul Eisler of Vienna, Austria wanted to simplify the manufacturing of radio circuitry. In Eisler’s time, wires thicker than coaxial cables and transistors as big as light bulbs were the norm in electronics. The very first generations of computers employed those colossal wires and transistors, creating convoluted circuits with sizes equaling those of usual offices today.

Eisler’s conception became widespread after World War II due to three reasons: reliability, space-saving potential, and the plausibility of mass production. Electronic devices using PCBs became smaller and more compact, easier to service due to the copper foil replacing the wires, and opened the doors for the eventual commercialization of electronics in general. In 1957, the first commercial computer that used transistors made use of PCBs, which had those transistors and other components soldered on them.

As the quest for compactness still continued, even the already compact PCB had to shrink even further. Enter the integrated circuit or IC for short. It was developed by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and is usually made of silicon. Whereas the PCB uses copper as a conductor for the electricity to power its molded components, the IC uses a process in which the flow of electricity is dictated whether the silicon touches an impure substance or not. The combination of silicon and the impure substance is called the semiconductor, and an IC is basically one. ICs are usually smaller than the fingers of a human hand and are vital in devices such as smartphones, MP3 players, and the central processors of a typical modern PC. However, due to their roles in resisting the flow of electricity and storing it, resistors and capacitors cannot be shrunk to IC-level sizes, respectively.

The creation of a compact electronic circuit does not stop with PCB fabrication. For a PCB to be put into good use, the required components must first be mounted onto the board using a process called soldering. Soldering is the process of connecting metal parts the electronic way using a filler metal, which is called the solder. The solder is melted using a soldering iron with temperatures ranging from 300 degrees Celsius to 427 degrees Celsius to form a kind of glue that binds the PCB’s copper foil and the components’ terminals together.

PCBs and their components are not the only things that can be joined together via soldering. Wires and cables can also be soldered together. The insulating coatings must be removed and the inner conductors must be bunched together before the solder can be applied.

Together, PCB fabrication and IC fabrication go hand-in-hand to serve as building blocks of the many electronics humanity enjoys today and will continue to enjoy for the years to come.

Author Bio:

PCB fabrication is all about the assembly of circuit boards used in electronics and computers. The layers of PCBs are assembled along with their specific surface patterns in order for them to be used in manufacturing electronics.


Steps to Help You Make Use of the Long island real estate System

The MLS listings system can help you go a long way as far as real estate selling and acquisition are concerned. In this light, learning more about this particular field can help you earn more money without trying too hard to attain this goal. In this article, you will learn more on some of the basic concepts of the MLS listings system not just for Long Island. In the long run, this can help you better decide on the steps that you need to perform to help you close a deal and have more of these successful ventures in the future.

Research Methods

long island real estateFirst, you need to know what type of properties and certain renovation methods can catch your clients’ fancy. In this light, you need to make sure that you will conduct research to help you get the answers that you need. You need not conduct formal research if you do not have enough time or funds for the effort. In most cases, simply making sure that you will gather enough pieces of information can help you go a long way. The following are some of the methods that you may want to employ to gain the necessary information for the Long island real estate transactions:

• If you have a lot of time to spare, you may also resort to individual or group interviews. Ideally, you should conduct an interview with established and legitimate organizations so you can make the most out of the information that you can get.

• Simple surveys can help you get as much information as you need. In fact, this is known as one of the easiest methods to administer. You may conduct your survey with people using the verbal method. If you are planning to use this procedure, you should make sure that you will list down their answers so that these can serve as references for the next steps. Another method that you can perform is the written survey. Using this method to prepare for the Long island real estate is the more common type.

• You may also ask for expert opinions if ever you know someone who is very knowledgeable on the intricacies of the field.


Another way to help you sell your properties successfully is through planning. In this method, you need to make sure that you will set the long-term and the short-term goals for your future transactions. These can serve as objective bases for your future decisions. Aside from these, formulating a concrete set of selling and advertising strategies can greatly benefit your transactions.

These are only some of the steps to help you make use of the Long island real estate system to the fullest. Hopefully, these will guide you as you systemically deal with the possible transaction-related situations. Inevitably, you will need to face these situations while you are currently handling a transaction with a potential client. Additionally, you have to keep yourself updated on the new goings-on in the field through constant research and analysis. This does not mean that you have to attend formal classes to get the necessary pieces of information for your future transactions. In most cases, getting news on the latest real estate trends and the new methods that you can use for your future transactions will suffice.

Long Island Real Estate allows potential renters the chance to reside in larger households.

Movable Cubicles: Their Pros and Cons

Movable cubicles are durable containers that may be transported to different locations. Their main purpose is to store items, but the larger types may be converted into rooms or even entire houses. They come in different dimensions and designs to suit their functions, and each variation has pros and cons.


Movable CubiclesSmaller containers such as boxes and drums have different sizes to accommodate the shipment. However, larger ones are generally limited to standard sizes such as 10, 20, 40 and 45 feet to simplify the delivery process. Small packages are usually lightweight, easy to carry, and cost less to handle but they have limited storage capacities. Huge containers are versatile and more spacious although you’d pay more for them. When choosing your container size, think about what they would be used for and how much money to allocate for the containers.


Shipping containers are made with varying material such as cardboard, plastic, wood, and steel, to name a few. Cardboard or corrugated boxes weigh less than steel containers but they can’t carry very heavy items. Plastic ones are waterproof and are immune to rust, but aside from the risk of becoming deformed because of high heat, they may also be unsuitable for items that react with plastics. Wooden chests can be aesthetically appealing and cheap but it can catch fire and be destroyed by rot or termites. Steel cubicles provide a high degree of protection against the elements, outside forces, and tampering but they are the most expensive and the hardest to transport. To make container selection easier, consider how the shipped items would interact with their containers.


Pay attention to doors: movable cubicles have at least one open side to allow the loading and unloading of items. There are those that open on one or two sides while others are open at the top and are covered with tarpaulin. They also have varying number of doors. The opening mechanism is also important when choosing your container. Make sure that the style of the container is convenient and safe for the kind of goods you are transporting. Also, opening it must not be a problem for the area that the cubicle is in.


Some containers have wheels to make them easier to be moved around. These may be ideal for cargo that is transported manually, but they may slide around on uneven surfaces when they are left alone. Non-wheeled containers require lifting by people or by machines though they are more stable. If you’re deciding whether to get wheels or not, evaluate your planned methods of keeping and transporting the containers.


Movable cubicles weigh somewhere from a few pounds to thousands of pounds depending on their size, material, and components. The weight of the container affects how it can be transported and how much you’d get charged for pick-ups. However, it’s unwise to choose a light container that can’t support its contents adequately. Determine the carrying capacity of the container and weigh it against the costs of lifting and moving it.

Other Special Characteristics

You can get containers with extra features such as paint, insulation, shock-absorbers, steel wool layers, water-proof coatings, ventilation, high security locks, etc. Having these means paying for additional costs but they may be necessary such as when you are transporting perishable items. Analyze whether you really need specific features for your container to avoid overspending.

Movable cubicles have varying characteristics to meet the diversity of clients’ needs – know their specifications and consider your purposes, budget, transportation methods, cargo type, and shipping regulations. Planning these will be helpful in selecting the most appropriate containers and knowing what shipping container companies to get them from.

Strengthen Your Employee Retention with These Strategies

Employee retention is important in any company. If you fail to take care of your work force then you risk suffering the consequences, such as financial loss, disrupted productivity, and a bad effect on your reputation. In order to earn the loyalty of your personnel, you need to implement different strategies that will create a very satisfying and desirable work environment for them. Once you achieve that, you can be assured to get the support that you need to drive your business to success. The question now is, how do you reach that goal and consequently strengthen your employee retention? Here are some strategies that may be helpful to you.

Identify Root Cause of Under performance

Employee retentionEmployees who plan to leave often show signs and the most common one is under performance. The drive is no longer there and that reflects in their work. Once you notice this, take action right away. Talk to the employee and get to the root cause of his dwindling performance. It could be because he was reassigned to a different department and not happy with his new boss or it could be because he was not prepared in the recent promotion that he got and struggling to learn the ropes of his new duties. You must also consider the possibility that he must be suffering a burn out, which is usually caused by an imbalance between work and personal life. Once you learn the cause, you can proceed to finding solutions if you really want to keep your skillful and experienced employee.

Conduct Employee Engagement Surveys

You can learn a lot from an engagement survey, such as the current perception of your employees towards their jobs, their complaints, the things that are satisfactory to them, and all other things that are related to their work. By conducting these surveys, you are getting a clear picture of how happy or not your employees are in working for your company. Not only that, surveys also have a good effect on your personnel’s morale because it somehow makes them feel that their opinions matter and that you are concerned about making their work lives better.

Continuous Program for Professional and Personal Development

Every company must have several programs in place that will support their employees’ professional and personal development. Trainings are good examples of these, so are team-building activities that help improve the rapport between staffs. Take note that personal development is included here because it is just as important. Without work-life balance, no matter how high the salary you are offering is, employees will still leave you.

Competitive Compensation and Benefits

Attractive wages and benefits are major components in strengthening employee retention. People work so that they can feed their families, buy their own homes, bring their kids to school, and save for their future. If these are not met by their salaries, they will definitely find better alternatives.

Hire the Right People

Improving employee retention starts at the hiring process. If you choose people who have a track record of jumping from one job to the next every few months, there is a good chance that they will do the same to you. This is why many companies now include a series of questionnaires for their applicants that are designed to decipher their priorities, goals, and visions. If those align with your company’s visions, then you can expect that applicant to work harmoniously with you and even stay for at least 5 years.

These are just some of the many strategies that you can implement to retain your employees. Recognizing good performance, making sure that your managers are connecting with their subordinates, and improving communications in all levels are some other techniques that you can adopt. The point is, when it comes to business, competition is not all about having the most sales but also about the ability to keep a good team intact.